Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts (2019) / Chapter Skim
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Pages 25-79

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From page 25...
... 25 The industry survey data provide an overview of what airports are doing to plan and to implement GHG reduction projects. To complement this information, airport staff were interviewed to learn more about specific GHG reduction efforts and to detail those experiences for others in the industry.
From page 26...
... 26 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts New York & New Jersey SWF, TEB (GT-14, GT-01) 13 San Francisco SFO CA L Western/ Pacific Zero Net Energy Building 1 Business Planning (BP-08)
From page 27...
... Case Examples 27 15 San Diego SAN CA L Western/ Pacific TNC GHG Reduction Program 3 Ground Transportation (GT-17) 16 SeattleTacoma SEA WA L Northwest/ Mountain Sustainable Aviation Fuels 3 Airfield Design and Operations (AF-13)
From page 28...
... 28 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction Replacing older airfield lighting systems with newer, light-emitting diode (LED) technology has emerged as a practical option for reducing GHG emissions.
From page 29...
... Case Examples 29 to LED lighting, the project integrated several other GHG-reducing elements including recycled pavement, limited construction vehicle trips, and hard-wired construction lamps that replaced traditional diesel-fueled lights. Upon successful completion of the south runway, Runway 10L/28R (the north runway)
From page 30...
... 30 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Lessons Learned ? FAA does not allow a mix of incandescent and LED lighting on the airfield; therefore, an upgrade requires a comprehensive approach matched with a suitable investment. ? A heating element, such as the arctic kit, is necessary to ensure effective operation in the CMH climate.
From page 31...
... Case Examples 31 Introduction Airports operate and maintain a variety of buildings and associated facilities used to support customer and tenant aviation activities. Each of those facilities requires heating, cooling, and electricity to safely and efficiently support all functions of airport operations.
From page 32...
... 32 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts These efforts generated a list of energy efficiency projects, the first of which was completed in 2010. STL partnered with its local utility, Ameren Missouri, to identify projects and apply for cash rebates after completion.
From page 33...
... Case Examples 33 region is generated by coal power plants. Using EPA's eGrid emissions rate for the Southeast Region, STL's energy efficiency efforts have resulted in approximately 8.4 million pounds of CO2e annually.
From page 34...
... 34 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction Airports have been installing solar PV systems on their property for more than 10 years. One significant advantage of solar is that the panels are easily integrated into the existing built environment.
From page 35...
... Case Examples 35 because of their close proximity to the main airport facilities to reduce the cost of long, interconnecting electrical lines. The east array provides power directly to Terminal A, the parking garage, and airfield lighting.
From page 36...
... 36 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts clear when the project bid was released and the selected bidder could offer the airport a price of electricity that is 29% less than its existing rate. The airport was guided by its 2004 Master Plan, which identifies the need to implement emission reduction projects.
From page 37...
... Case Examples 37 Introduction As highlighted in this report, there is a considerable amount of activity at airports with a high potential for generating greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions may come directly from the airport operator; they may result from the airport's purchase of electricity from a regional power plant; or they are produced by tenants and customers using the airport.
From page 38...
... 38 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts shrinking the Jetport's carbon footprint. The final SAMP, released in November 2016, included a broad goal for greenhouse gas emissions, a baseline emissions inventory, reduction targets, and plans for project implementation.
From page 39...
... Case Examples 39 Cobenefits ? Cobenefits of this measure include a strong opportunity to collaborate with the community on projects in which the PWM can demonstrate environmental leadership. Other Airports Implementing this Measure Airports that have completed a GHG inventory in the past five years are listed in Table 3-4.
From page 40...
... 40 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction GHG emissions are reduced with more efficient energy use as reported by the EPA (National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency, 2009)
From page 41...
... Case Examples 41 and compromised building operations. As a consequence, the airport determined it was necessary to upgrade the equipment.
From page 42...
... 42 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction Temperatures rise throughout the day and peak in the afternoon, which prompts a spike in energy demand to keep buildings cool. As a consequence of supply and demand, power prices rise because of the increasing scarcity of power, which incentivizes energy conservation.
From page 43...
... Case Examples 43 period. Furthermore, the demand charge applied to the customer's monthly bill for the entire year is derived from the highest peak demand recorded.
From page 44...
... 44 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Source: Austin Energy, 2017. Figure 3-4.
From page 45...
... Case Examples 45 Introduction Geothermal heating and cooling systems make use of energy in the earth. One effective technique for extracting this energy, regardless of location, is through ground source heating (GSH)
From page 46...
... 46 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts The second project, completed in 2014 as a retrofit in the main terminal building, includes a vertical wellfield design located in a landside, grassed area near the airport entrance. It includes 276 bore holes that extend to a depth of 350 feet below grade.
From page 47...
... Case Examples 47 temperature of building areas to be conditioned and to monitor the operation of the entire HVAC system. It took a full year to calibrate the system to operate effectively, given the local climate and specific use patterns in the buildings.
From page 48...
... 48 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction The sun generates energy in the form of both light and heat. Solar photovoltaic energy, which uses panels to directly convert solar light into electricity, is a proven universal alternative to conventional electricity generation.
From page 49...
... Case Examples 49 only addresses the heating aspect of climate control, this renewable energy may be best suited for colder climates. In an effort to cut heating costs, reduce energy consumption, and improve longevity of its heating system, the Boise Airport (BOI)
From page 50...
... 50 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts ? Unanticipated regulatory reviews for the larger project arose, including load analysis for the roof and for the floor where the system components would be located. Also, all tanks required drains that were capable of tolerating the temperature of water of the design.
From page 51...
... Case Examples 51 Introduction Ground transportation operating within an airport's perimeter has been a major contributor of GHG emissions (Monsalud, Ho, and Rakas, 2015) , and there are currently a variety of initiatives underway to reduce these impacts.
From page 52...
... 52 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts the airport's CNG vehicles that are also available to tenants and the public. In 2017, DFW executed a contract to add RNG that originates from a nearby landfill to create a more sustainable natural gas mix for use at these filling stations.
From page 53...
... Case Examples 53 transportation end user, which decreases the price to customers including Clean Energy and DFW. DFW receives a rebate at the end of the contract year on the basis of the market value of RINs, which results in an RNG cost that is lower than that of conventional CNG.
From page 54...
... 54 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction Climate control is critical for all airports to function effectively. In northern climates, heating is fundamental to ensuring that customers are comfortable, airport staff can do their jobs, and machinery can operate as intended.
From page 55...
... Case Examples 55 a storage capacity of 30 tons of wood pellets was installed adjacent to the boiler building, supplying on-demand delivery when the wood pellet supply reaches a specific load level. The boiler system is located inside an old fish storage building retrofitted for its new purpose.
From page 56...
... 56 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts ? Previous installations had incomplete combustion, which could be resolved by purchasing different equipment and working with an experienced engineering team. ? The airport also purchased the boiler and silo separately, ensuring that it controlled the selection of the most critical components and the bid engineering and installation.
From page 57...
... Case Examples 57 Introduction Servicing aircraft at the gate requires an array of specialized vehicles, such as baggage tugs, belt loaders, and pushback tugs. Fleets of GSE have traditionally been powered by diesel, a fuel second only to coal in its high level of CO2 emissions (U.S.
From page 58...
... 58 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts elements including the signature designation of the terminal as LEED Gold by the U.S. Green Building Council.
From page 59...
... Case Examples 59 Lessons Learned ? Although important for all airport development projects, the participation of and the close coordination with airline partners was essential to the overall success of this project. ? Coordination with FAA Airport District Office staff was also critical.
From page 60...
... 60 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Table 3-5. (Continued)
From page 61...
... Case Examples 61 Introduction Movement of passengers, airport staff, and tenant employees to, from, and around the airport is a major contributor of GHG emissions (Monsalud, Ho, and Rakas, 2015)
From page 62...
... 62 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts charging stations (five each at EWR, JFK, and LGA) at patron parking facilities available to the traveling public.
From page 63...
... Case Examples 63 airport)
From page 64...
... 64 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Airport Project Grant (50% of Project Cost) FY 2017 Indianapolis (IND)
From page 65...
... Case Examples 65 Introduction Nearly 40% of all GHG emissions are attributed to the design, construction, and operation of buildings, with the majority of those emissions resulting from fossil fuel generated electricity, heating, and cooling of building space (Theordor, 2016)
From page 66...
... 66 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts LED lighting responsive to specific needs of the occupants; and a variable refrigerant volume HVAC system that uses ambient air and electric power. Solar PV panels have been erected on the building roof and on the top deck of the parking garage to supply the reduced electricity load.
From page 67...
... Case Examples 67 Handheld radios are also constantly being charged. There is an electric bus charging station in the garage that was not accounted for in the original building forecasts.
From page 68...
... 68 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction The Good Traveler Program provides air passengers with a simple and direct opportunity to offset their travel-associated carbon emissions by investing the added cost of associated emissions into local carbon reduction projects. People undertake offsetting on The Good Traveler website through a three-step process: (1)
From page 69...
... Case Examples 69 carbon emissions from 115 million miles of air travel, which is equivalent to 18,000 MT of CO2e, or equivalent to taking 3,822 cars off the road for one year. Implementation While any air passenger can participate in The Good Traveler Program, regardless of the airports used, the active participation of airport partners helps promote the program's success and allows airports to connect to that success.
From page 70...
... 70 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts ? Offsets are relatively new products and education is essential to explain how they work and to cultivate trust in their efficacy. Effectiveness ? The total value of the offset purchase goes directly to the associated project.
From page 71...
... Case Examples 71 Introduction Since 2014, TNCs such as Uber and Lyft have had a dramatic effect on how passengers travel to and from airports. As demand for ridesharing services increases, airports are faced with new challenges in influencing the amount of GHG emissions associated with these driver-owned vehicles.
From page 72...
... 72 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts basis of demonstrated compliance with annual emissions reduction targets. This system includes registering TNC vehicle types, collecting individual trip characteristics, calculating emissions from those activities, and applying more stringent standards each year to document emissions reductions.
From page 73...
... Case Examples 73 ? Developing the formulas for crediting GHG reductions and increasing fees was an obstacle, as there were different pressures associated with striking the correct balance of regulation and incentive to achieve objectives. ? A performance-based approach gained support from the regulated community.
From page 74...
... 74 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Introduction In recognition of the significant carbon footprint associated with aircraft operations, the Port of Seattle has directed considerable effort to support the adoption of SAF, a low-carbon alternative to conventional jet fuel (Figure 3-14)
From page 75...
... Case Examples 75 participation in the Sustainable Aviation Fuels Northwest Initiative, a regional collaboration of airports, airlines, feedstock growers, researchers, and policy makers formed in 2008 to develop an understanding of the problem and to identify potential solutions specifically for the Northwest Region. Out of this collaboration, the port shifted its role from that of research and development support, to direct market development via infrastructure, policy influence, and financing.
From page 76...
... 76 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts In May 2018, the port announced an MOU agreement with 16 airlines to collaborate on a work plan to supply and consume sustainable aviation fuels at SEA in accordance with the use goals approved by the Commission. A Sustainable Aviation Fuel Strategic Plan (2018)
From page 77...
... Case Examples 77 Introduction The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) with funding support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
From page 78...
... 78 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts directly across from the airport terminal. An educational kiosk is located inside the terminal providing real-time information on electricity output from the solar facility.
From page 79...
... Case Examples 79 ? An initial period operations and maintenance contract is important to ensure that the contractor remains involved with the initial operation of the equipment and with getting any glitches ironed out. ? Airports without any existing gate equipment and associated procedures for their operation, including contracts with airlines and ground handlers, need to make time for consultation with stakeholders and for the development of use procedures.

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