Science Breakthroughs to Advance Food and Agricultural Research by 2030 (2019) / Chapter Skim
Currently Skimming:

4 Food Science and Technology
Pages 83-108

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 83...
... . Food is processed for many different purposes and, overall, processing results in improved product characteristics such as safety, shelf life, quality, sensory attributes, and nutritional value.
From page 84...
... Attaining a food supply that provides safe, healthy, appealing, and affordable foods is the shared responsibility of food and allied industries, local, state, and federal governments, and researchers and educators in academic institutions, along with consumers through their food choices and practices. Most of the necessary research and development (R&D)
From page 85...
... . Upcycling: Reuse of By-Products from Food Processing A classic example of early upcycling was the utilization of sweet whey, a by product of cheese making, as an ingredient in various food products.
From page 86...
... . This chapter identifies important challenges faced by the postharvest food sector in making progress toward meeting future demands for a safe, nutritious, sustainable, and affordable food supply for all.
From page 87...
... but important technological innovations can be added to these efforts, including development of ways to increase product quality, shelf life, and/or safety. Other challenges are best addressed through focus on a systems approach and behavioral changes (see Conrad et al., 2018, for an example of the challenge of improved diet quality being associated with increased food waste and greater amounts of water and pesticide use)
From page 88...
... When a contaminated product enters the market, or an outbreak occurs, we currently rely on piecemeal systems to perform epidemiological investigations, trace back, and trace forward, meaning public health risk remains elevated for extended periods of time, until the right information has been obtained and synthesized. A thorough and integrated data communication and management system that includes all steps in the supply chain would greatly aid traceability and reduce the public health impact of food safety events, particularly in the case of larger processors, distributors, and retailers.
From page 89...
... Better assurance of food quality will also aid in optimizing resource efficiencies in the system and ultimately reduce food loss and waste through improved ingredient flow and increased product shelf life. 3.? SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES 3.1? Opportunity 1: Omics Technologies The recently coined term foodomics refers to the use of "omics" technologies and data as they relate to the discipline of food science (Capozzi and Bordoni, 2013; Andjelkovic et al., 2017)
From page 90...
... . In sensory science, where we know that the flavor experience is multimodal, omics techniques can be used to characterize genetic and metabolic differences in consumer perception of flavor, allowing for a better understanding BOX 4-2 Examples of Precision Nutrition Personalized (or precision)
From page 91...
... . Having a technology that can "sense" product safety, quality, and/or freshness, preferably in real time, will deliver critical information to processors, distributors, and consumers, potentially resulting in better decisions about safety and food waste.
From page 92...
... Understanding such a complex system and the number of parameters to be estimated within it -- complex interactions and nonlinear dose-response relation ships among all the nutrients in the food supply, all the microbes in the human gut, all the polymorphisms in the human genome (Grimaldi et al., 2017; Kaput et al., 2017) , and additional environmental factors -- necessitates not only the generation of data but also the data science technologies to store, curate, analyze, and share the large volumes of data.
From page 93...
... . Table 4-1 provides a summary of some common biosensor technologies.
From page 94...
... . Examples of nanosensors in developing specific food safety applications are detailed in Wang and Duncan (2017)
From page 95...
... These sample types may be infrequently contaminated and when the contaminant is present, concentrations are low. Hence, for sensors to be of the greatest value in food safety, analytical sensitivity (detection limits)
From page 96...
... Associated with these changes is the need to identify and understand the design and behaviors in emerging food supply chains. In the area of food safety, there are a number of large, publicly accessible online databases used by the public health sector (inventoried in Marvin et al., 2017)
From page 97...
... Integrated data and data management systems can also be applied with the goal of improving resource efficiencies in the food system. Implementation of such a data management system in food networks supports efforts to optimize food processes and recycle and reduce waste during and after manufacturing as an operational concept in order to achieve a "circular economy" that makes best use of the range of waste streams in the agricultural and food system (see, for instance, the North American Initiative on Food Waste Reduction and Recovery [CEC, 2018]
From page 98...
... , little is known about consumer response to data systems extended to the retail consumer level. See Box 4-5 for more concrete examples of the application of blockchain technology to the management of data on the food supply chain.
From page 99...
... Using the Hyperledger Fabric platform, companies are reporting that the increased transparency of blockchain would likely facilitate greater responsiveness in the case of foodborne illness out breaks and recalls, including greater timeliness and accuracy. In fact, Walmart has already demonstrated the utility of blockchain to improve food safety by testing its efficacy in a mock trace-back of a fresh fruit product, which took 7 days using conventional methods but only 2.2 seconds by accessing blockchain records.
From page 100...
... While monitoring food quality and freshness with indicators is routine in the food industry sector, intelligent packaging technologies are extremely well suited for detecting metabolites occurring as a consequence of food spoilage, and thus may
From page 101...
... 3.4.1?Gaps Although alternative food processing and packaging technologies have the potential to deliver better quality, nutrition, safety, and acceptability to food products, some questions related to the need to decrease the energetic footprint (e.g., energy and water savings, reliability) and environmental impacts (e.g., emissions or environmental degradation due to the use of plastic packaging materials)
From page 102...
... Ignoring the need to better understand and anticipate consumer food behaviors, drivers, and trade-offs may limit consumer acceptance of new products, technologies, and market innovations. The need to better account for consumers' perceptions of risk around new technologies also underpins the need for education and strategies to best communicate the nature of food production, processing technologies, and the science involved so that consumers can make thoughtful and informed decisions in food selection, handling, and preparation.
From page 103...
... A few examples are provided here. Many of the emerging food processing technologies (i.e., ohmic heating, ultrasound, or pulsed light)
From page 104...
... ? Provide enhanced product quality, nutrient retention, safety, and consumer appeal in a cost-effective and efficient manner that also reduces environmental impact and food waste by developing, opti mizing, and validating advanced food processing and packaging technologies. ? Support improved decision making to maximize food integrity, quality, safety, and traceability, as well as to reduce food loss and
From page 105...
... 2017. Inner workings: Companies seek food safety using a microbiome approach.
From page 106...
... 2017. Towards an integrated food safety surveillance system: A simulation study to explore the poten tial of combining genomic and epidemiological metadata.
From page 107...
... in food systems: An IFT report submitted to the FDA, volume 2: cost considerations and implications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9(1)
From page 108...
... 2018. FOSCOLLAB: Global Platform for Food Safety Data and Information.


This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.





体彩7位数400期走势图